We decided on a microcontroller!
For our CanSat, we want to use the microcontroller STM32F413. This chip has enough interfaces to connect our sensors to. Since it runs at a frequency of 100MHz, we have no problems with the calculations we need to perform. Before we deploy everything to a circuit board, we will test everything using a development board. Currently, we are still programming the basics and slowly becoming more familiar with its requirements.